The future of the Middle East remains one of the most hotly debated and controversial issues of today. Intermittent conflict remains a defining feature of the region, with the Syrian war being the most recent example. “Regional Players and the Shifting Security Equation in the Middle East,” discussed the many issues ranging from conflicts to economic backwardness and low levels human development. The question of what to do in order to end conflicts and bring peace to the region was central to the discussion. The historical animosities among countries and societies such as nationalism, sectarianism and external interventions, as in the case of the Iraq invasion as well as the legacies of authoritarian regimes, were discussed as sources of the ongoing disorder in the region. The implications of these troubles on the regional and global powers were stated.