Professor Berdal Aral completed his Ph.D. on “Turkey and International Society from a Critical Legal Perspective” in 1994 at the University of Glasgow. His research and teaching interests include international law and human rights. He has written four books in Turkish, The Right of Self-Defence under International Law (1999), Collective Rights as Third Generation Human Rights (2010), From Global Security to Global Hegemony: The UN System and the Muslim World (2016), and Perpetual Betrayal: the Palestinian Problem and International Law under Imperialism’s Shadow (2019). He has also published articles in both English and Turkish on the topics mentioned above, as well as on international organisations, the search for integration in the Muslim world, and Turkish foreign policy. Prof. Aral currently teaches in the Department of International Relations at Istanbul Medeniyet University.